Codon deoptimization out of frq contributes to untimely transcription cancellation.
(A) Northern blot showing the presence of truncated Kink dating service frq mRNA species in both de-optimized strains using an RNA probe targeted to 5′ end of frq mRNA (indicated in ; Figure 2-figure supplement 1E). * indicates a non-specific band. (B) Northern blot showing both full-length and truncated frq mRNA are enriched in poly(A)-containing RNAs. Equal amounts of total RNA or poly(A) RNA were loaded in each lane. Probe specific for 5′ end of frq was used. (C) Poly(A) sites mapped by 3′ RACE. Arrows indicate the mapped poly(A) sites, the red arrows indicate the major poly(A) site that was found in both frq-deopt1 and frq-deopt2 strains, and the black line indicates potential PAS motif (AUAAAU in frq-deopt1 and AAUAAA in frq-deopt2). Nucleotides that are mutated are shown in red. (D) ChIP assay showing RNA pol II levels at the frq transgene loci in the wt-frq-aq and frq-deopt2-aq strains. The ChIP results were normalized by input DNA and represented as Input%. The promoter of qrf was replaced by a qa-2 promoter and tissue were cultured in the absence quinic acid to block qrf transcription. The triangle on the top indicates the location of mapped poly(A) sites. The previously known heterochromatin region ?63 in Neurospora was used as the negative control. Error bars shown are standard deviations (n = 3). *p<0.05. (E) Northern blot analysis showing premature transcription termination of qrf. f-frq is an frq codon-optimized strain (Zhou et al., 2013a).
There have been two possibilities for how these truncated polyadenylated frq mRNAs can be produced: PAS-situated untimely transcription termination otherwise partial destruction off full-size frq mRNAs followed closely by polyadenylation (van Hoof et al., 2002; Frischmeyer et al., 2002; Western et al., 2006; LaCava ainsi que al., 2005). (mehr …)